Monday, February 24, 2020

WE 4 Response crj 520 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

WE 4 Response crj 520 - Essay Example That has never really worked as they might have wished (Miles, 2014). That is why today our American prisons are overcrowded and unstaffed. The prison system cannot be expected to improve until the minds of people are changed. Prison is not supposed to be a vacation spot, a recreational facility, or the next best thing to the local gym. It is supposed to be a place where people who have broken the law are sent to serve the time allotted as their punishment. As Scott discusses Probation and Parole Officers are the transition person between the time they have spent incarcerated and their reintroduction back into society. They make educated decisions about which parolees are in need of greater counseling, mental health, medical, or drug treatment and have a greater chance of committing another crime, as opposed to those who will likely never reoffend. However, the problem with prison’s today is the fact that you have hardcore, hardened, and dangerous criminals directly interacting with petty criminals, like shoplifters. When that shoplifter gets out he faces hard times instead of resorting to his petty crime skills, he may escalate his crime based on what he learned from other inmates in prison (Samen ow, 2010). This can have a dramatic effect and creates unpredictability in the equation. Miles, K. (2014, March 10). Just how much the war on drugs impacts our overcrowded prisons, in one chart. The Huffington Post, 1. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/10/war-on-drugs-prisons-infographic_n_4914884.html Samenow. (2011, April 9). Do prisons really make offenders worse?. Psychology Today, 1. Retrieved from

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Organisational change and development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Organisational change and development - Essay Example Center of discussion in this paper is organisational change management as the process necessary for an association to identify, to organise, to employ and to attain full benefit from the alterations taking place within or outside the organisational environment. The objectives of organisational change management is concerned with effective planning, execution, measurement and preservation of the initiatives of implementing change strategies as well as augmentation of the capacity required for managing changes. Organisational change can be observed when an organisation intends to streamline its available assets and enhance its capacity to generate value by augmenting effectiveness to a sustainable extent. Changes are considered as ubiquitous in nature that helps progressing as well as achieving experiences which escort to the acceleration of the overall organisational growth. In the current era of globalisation, the process of organisational changes is widely considered to be inevitabl e. In order to meet the technological as well as environmental challenges of the situations, the teams should be able to adopt changes in due course of time. The change management strategies of an organisation are often based on diverse approaches such as individualistic, socio-economic and structural aspects among others which help in the development of many theories and functions. Along with the advancement of technology as well as new practices, the organisational change management process continues to alter in order to cope with the enduring changes. There are various types of approaches such as traditional, socio-economic, socio-structural and socio-technical approaches among others which deal with organisational change management from differing perspectives. One of the mostly applied perspectives to organisational change management is observed to be the traditional approach that can be effectively described by the Kurt Lewin’s classical model (Friedman & Shcustack, 2008 ). Kurt Lewin’s classical theory is influential in organisational change management as it focuses mainly on the individual aspects and social psychology rather than observation and problem solving. Lewin proposed that populace respond to any imaginary situation or changes and intends to shape it accordingly. This includes mainly three phases such as unfreezing, moving and refreezing. Unfreezing is a type of challenge faced by every human beings in an organisation. This means that the individual employees are often examined to depict reluctance to change according to the changes occurring within the organisational environment or in its external business environment. However, the reluctant employees ultimately accept the change in order to sustain in the organisation. It involves creation of the preliminary motivation towards the change by communicating the existing problematic situation or scenario to the employees of the organisation. This facilitates to understand the varied viewpoints of the individuals as well as helps to progress people from the ‘frozen’ state to an ‘unfrozen or change’ state so that it can be adopted efficiently by all. Next is the moving or transition stage. It involves recognition of the need of change, that can be in terms of cultural change or structural change in order to ascertain new principles and rules. Refreezing refers to the fortification of the new adjustments in order to accomplish rehabilitated stability among the organisationa

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Seven Wonders of the World Essay Example for Free

The Seven Wonders of the World Essay One of the most famous structures on the list of the seven wonders of the ancient world is The Great Pyramid of Giza. What makes this structure the most recognizable on the list? Not only is this pyramid the oldest structure on the list, but it is the only structure that still remains. The Great Pyramid of Giza was the tallest man made structure in the world for 3800 years which is not only a testament to its durability but to its mark as one of the most remarkable structures built. It is no wonder that The Great Pyramid of Giza was placed on the list of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The Great Pyramid of Giza is a fairly typical pyramid. It is not decorated with reliefs or inscriptions, and it is built in the same shape as all other pyramids. The Pyramid of Giza was not the first pyramid to be built, yet this pyramid has become one of the most famous structures in the world. Why has this particular pyramid gained all the fame and glory? The Pyramid of Giza, though not much larger than most pyramids, is in fact the largest pyramid ever built. This pyramid exemplifies the advancements and accomplishments of architecture in Egypt. The pyramid is large, precise and required an overwhelming amount of organization. It is not the pyramid that is so fascinating, but it is the process and method used to create it. Even today, Egyptologists are not completely sure how The Great Pyramid of Giza was built. In about 2,550 B. C. Pharaoh Khufu ordered the building of his tomb on the plateau of Giza which lies on the outskirts of Cairo. The tomb was designed to protect the Pharaoh’s body as well as his possessions. This would ensure a safe trip with all his belongings into the afterlife. Some believe that Khufu’s vizier, Hemiunu, was the architect of the pyramid whose seated statue was found in the tomb at Giza, but it is not known for sure. The pyramid took just under 30 years to build. The pyramid consists of 2 million limestone blocks each weighing from 2. 5 to 15 tons. The corners of the base of the pyramid coincide almost exactly with the four cardinal points, and the base is level to within in an inch. The pyramid is estimated to stand 481 ft tall. Right by The Great Pyramid of Giza lay three smaller pyramids which are believed to hold the Pharaoh’s queens. The second largest pyramid as well as the sphinx was commissioned by Pharaoh Khufu’s son, Pharaoh Khafre, in 2520 B. C.. It appears at first that this pyramid is the largest, ut do not be fooled. Pharaoh Khafre built his tomb on a plateau 33ft higher most likely to out due his father. The last and smallest pyramid was built by Pharaoh Menkaure around 2490 B. C.. Much like most old kingdom pyramids, the inside of The Great Pyramid of Giza consists of three chambers. The entrance is on the north face of the pyramid and placed up high. The entrance leads to a passageway that descends 191 ft through the pyramid into an underground chamber. There is a passageway from this chamber that is wide enough for only one man, but it leads to a dead end. On the east-west central axis of the pyramid remains the Queens Chamber which was misnamed by early explorers. This chamber was sealed off from the rest of the pyramid and is now believed to once be the location of the king’s ka (spirit) statue. Connected to the descending passage, there is an ascending passage as well. The ascending passage is only big enough to crawl in (approx 1m high and 1m wide). This passage leads you to the Grand Gallery which ultimately leads you to the Pharaoh’s Chamber. All that remains in the Pharaoh’s Chamber today is Khufu sarcophagus. The room is built in red granite, and it is believed that the pyramid was built around the sarcophagus. Also discovered were airshafts in the pyramid. The four airshafts are believed to be â€Å"escape routes† for the Pharaoh’s soul. Two of the airshaft point to Orion and the other two point towards the polar stars. The Pyramids were commissioned by the Pharoah, but the Pyramids were built by the people. With little tools or technology, the Egyptians were able to move heavy blocks of stone as far as 500 mi as well as place the blocks on top of one another so that the pyramid would reach 481ft tall. It is a mystery even today how the Egyptians maneuvered these heavy blocks, but some theories have been drawn. Many believe that the stones were carried using wooden sleds, levers and papyrus twine to the pyramid using ramps. The gradual ramps were made of mud, stone and wood. The ramps were used to move the blocks not only to the pyramid but around and up it as well. The Nile River was also used in transporting materials and equipment. Over 100,000 laborers worked on the project. The people that built the pyramid were skilled and well-fed builders who lived in nearby cities. Help from many ommunities across Egypt most likely occurred to create the pyramid. Originally, the pyramid had casing stones of highly polished white limestone lying on the outside of the pyramid. However in the Middle Ages, massive earthquakes loosened the casing, and the materials were reused for other projects. Erosion, grave robbers as well as tourists have also attributed to the Pyramid’s deterioration over the years. However, steps have been made to protect the pyramid. Now the pyramids are protected by organizations, Egyptologist and the people so that it may remain unharmed for future generations to see. Originally, The Great Pyramid of Giza was built as a symbol of Egypt’s wealth and power. Now, the pyramids are a symbol of Egypt and its rich history and culture. The Great Pyramid of Giza is a testament to the intelligence and technological advancement of Egypt’s ancient civilizations. Pharaoh Khufu was able to create one of the largest structures in the world as well as one of the oldest. The pyramid was an amazing feat of ancient civilization which is why it made the list as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Speed Limit :: essays research papers

Should Highway Speed Limits Be Increased? Should highway speed limits be increased? Should we strike down every sign that the government posts and uses to regulate the speed limit on the thousands of highways around the country? Should we trust the driving ability of each and every person to drive within a reasonably safe speed? The response that most people lean toward is one of negativity. People automatically assume that the speeds presently posted on our highways are there only for our own protection. People do not believe that the government is knowingly implementing speed limits that are below a safe speed for a given roadway. It is true that the government claims to set speed limits that are for the public well being. As the United States Department of Transportation puts it, "Speed limits are appropriate speeds based on the traffic of an area, road conditions, weather, and the lighting" (The Star Ledger). But the fact of the matter is that their arguments have no factual basis. Suppose the government is really setting speed limits that are safe. If this were true, speed limits would change constantly. If the roadway were wet, if the traffic is thick, or the visibility is bad at a certain point in time then the speed limit would have to change continuously. But, the government can't be on the highway twenty-four hours of the day changing signs. If the government wants to set a safe speed standard then it must be much more realistic. A driver knows their ability as wel l as their vehicles ability under diverse conditions. If the government tries to tell society that the faster speeds they are traveling is harmful; people will not feel that the government is looking out for their safety. They will instead feel as if though they were being treated as children. Therefor the speed limit on highways should be increased, and individuals should be allowed to drive at a safe "high" speed without being held back by an unrealistic law. From first-hand experience, one should easily realize that the common man would feel negativity toward raising speed limits. People fall into this trap because the general public is often mislead into believing that abolishing speed limits on highways will only cause more harm than good. People often are the victims of misunderstanding and people rarely observe the advantages offered by increasing the speed limit to a safe level.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Essay

1. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or â€Å"burn-out† has always been and issue for paramedics and other emergency responders, but it wasn’t recognized or even considered to be a significant problem. The causes of PTSD range from a major life-threatening incident (e.g. war, act of violence, accident and disaster) to a prolonged series of events (e.g. bullying, harassment, abuse, living with a violent partner). PTSD was introduced in the 1980s, before then it has been known by many names including shell shock, war neurosis, soldier’s heart, gross stress reaction, transient situation disturbance, combat stress, combat fatigue, battle fatigue, stress breakdown, traumatic neurosis. The following is a list of PTSD symptoms that I have gathered from various sources, but mostly from psychology courses that I have taken in the paramedic program: *sleep problems, nightmares and waking early *flashbacks and replays which the victim can’t switch off *impaired memory, forgetfulness, inability to recall names, facts and dates that are well known to you *impaired concentration *poor memory and inability to concentrate *exaggerated startle response *irritability, sudden intense anger, occasional violent outbursts *panic attacks *hypersensitivity, whereby every remark is perceived as critical 1 *obsessive – the experience takes over your life, you can’t get it out of your mind *joint and muscle pains which have no obvious cause *feelings of nervousness, anxiety *reactive depression *excessive levels of shame, embarrassment *survivor guilt for having survived when others perished *a feeling of having been given a second chance at life *undue fear *low self-esteem and shattered self-confidence *emotional numbness, inability to feel love or joy *feelings of detachment *avoidance of anything that reminds you of the experience *physical and mental paralysis at any reminder of the experience So what types of experiences are most likely to cause PTSD? Is PTSD more prevalent in highly populated areas or is it just as likely in less populated regions? I’m most interested in PTSD rates of paramedics because I’m a paramedic student just starting to participate in ambulance ride outs. So in three days I start getting exposed to the same situations as real paramedics. For  someone who will be entering the service next year I want to avoid PTSD myself so I can have a long and healthy career as a paramedic. 2 When I first became interested in becoming a paramedic I heard from friends and others in the emergency services that a lot of paramedics quit and go on to other jobs because of the stress. This sounded logical to me but of coarse I couldn’t be sure till I either experienced it or researched the matter. I will be alternating my ride-outs between two ambulance bases. One that has a low call volume and the other has a high call volume. Here are a few facts from the Mosby’s Paramedic Text that is probably the most widely used in North America: – â€Å"About 30% of men and women who spent time in war zones experience this disorder.† (Sanders, 2001, p.1152) -â€Å"Posttraumatic Syndrome frequently occurs after†¦natural or human disasters; and accidents.† (Sanders, 2001, p.1152) -â€Å"Depression, alcohol or other substance abuse†¦often accompanies posttraumatic syndrome.† (Sanders, 2001, p.1152) -â€Å"About 5.2 million people in the United States have posttraumatic syndrome  during the course of a given year† (Sanders, 2001, p.1152). I think the cognitive perspective is the most appropriate for dealing with and answering this question. The cognitive perspective shows â€Å"how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information† (Myers, 2001, p.6). Paramedics are right in there during high stress emergency calls, how they encode and process this information at the scene  and after the call during a debriefing is important. How they store and retrieve the information is crucial. It can be affected by there own actions or the actions of others at the scene or even how they perceive the call went. 2. Students who are in-class may have the benefit of the instructor being available constantly for questions and clarification but I believe distance learning students have the will to learn. Distance students can schedule their own study time for when there ready and focused on the work. In-class students have to conform to a given schedule and may not be totally focused having to conform to a schedule. The students enrolled in a distance learning course will learn more about psychology. I would choose the descriptive method to observe and record the student through surveys and testing. Observations of assignment scores, surprise surveys throughout the course that evaluate the students progress through the course. Research into past courses may be helpful also. How did distance students and in-class students perform in the past? Natural observations will be the biggest indicator, just sit back and watch the students learn and how they progress on assignments and exams. Surveys where the students report there take on the benefits of whichever way there taking the class (distance/in-class). 4 The independent variable is the information the students are exposed too. The teacher’s lectures, comments and insights in the classroom setting compared to the prewritten notes that are sent to distance education students. Dependent variables are how well the students learn in the classroom atmosphere, and how the other students learn with prewritten notes. As for measuring, the mean is more valuable here. I’ll want to know which  class had the better average. Of course the data may be affected by those who are registered for interest only and aren’t concerned with grades. That would also affect the range. I could knock off grades that obviously aren’t common in a psychology course, those who score abnormally low or high compared to the grades of past courses. Standard deviation would show me better the difference in scores compared to the mean The participants could easily be the students who register for distance learning and those for an in class course. Some background research would need to be done to eliminate those who may have a background in psychology. The idea participants have no psychology experience at all. The experimental group would be the distance learning students. Can they succeed with the information that is provided? The control group is the students in traditionally taught class. 5 Students in distance learning will provide a broader variety of answers on assignments, tests and surveys. This is because distance learning students can stop in the middle of the reading the course notes and use other sources for clarification or to expand on an unfamiliar topic. Students in class will most likely regurgitate information provided in class. Research strength would be the natural progression of the students which should be comparable to past course that where taught through distance learning and in class. A weakness would be that the teacher may unknowingly emphasize or provide more information on certain topics that assignments and exams will focus on. Since the distance students only have prewritten notes they can only go with what is provided. Some students enrolled in distance learning maybe only taking the course for interest and may consider the final grade unimportant compared to a full-time student who needs to achieve good grades to graduate.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

A Medical And Moral Look At Ectopic Pregnancy Essays

The complexity of the human reproductive system is unbelievable baffling. The fact that the egg even leaves the protection of the ovary and starts its journey down the fallopian tube is remarkable. The process by which the sperm manage to scurry their way to meet the egg through the hostile environment of a woman’s body isanother great accomplishment of the human body. The fact that, in the majority of cases, the egg and sperm meet, join, and find their way into the uterus and set up the beginning of a new little life is one of the most perplexing â€Å"facts† of medical science. The treacherous path is sometimes uncompleted, however. When this is the case the parents are face with one of the more serious, and potentially deadly conditions†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Testing and diagnosing an ectopic pregnancy is actually difficult, because an answer to the problem is not always clear cut, nor is it always available right away. The hCG levels in the woman’s body may be tested to check the rate of increase in them over the pregnancy. They normally double about every two days in anormal pregnancy. But this alone is not a conclusive indicator of an ectopic pregnancy. An ultrasound is frequently used, along with vaginal ultrasound to try to visualize the pregnancy and the position of the baby. If a uterine (normal) pregnancy is confirmed then the chance of an ectopic pregnancy is extremely rare. Sometimes it is too early to diagnose an ectopic via ultrasound, and the exam has to be repeated. If the ectopic pregnancy is visualized, on the other hand, then the couple will proceed to treatment options available depending on their situation. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Sometimes in urgent situations a laparoscopy procedure will be done to provide both the diagnosis and the treatment. This is done in an operating room as a surgery. If the patient does have an ectopic, the procedure is surgically treated at that time. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The two main types of treatment are chemical and surgical. Chemical treatment is done with a drug called methotrexate. It is used to literally â€Å"dissolve† the pregnancy in non-urgentShow MoreRelatedWhen does Personhood Begin and Where do we Draw the Line?1403 Words   |  6 Pagesphysically, too. Most importantly, no woman wants to be called a murderer simply because she chooses to terminate a pregnancy. Most supporters of personhood legislation assert that personhood begins at fertilization, while most pro-choice people claim that personhood does not begin at fertilization and it is the choice of a woman to decide whether or not she wants to continue her pregnancy or use methods of birth control. However, I believe that once a fetus has become receptive to senses and pain, itRead MoreAbortion : Why Politics Can t Find Common Ground1317 Words   |  6 PagesProfessor Gabriel Ibarra 17 Nov. 2015â€Æ' Abstract Abortion as we all know, is a controversial topic that has been known to debate on whether it should be legal or illegal. Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. This particular issue goes way back and even though it is legal now in some places it is still being debated on. Those individuals who are taking sides are either on the pro-choice side or pro-life. Pro-choice beingRead MoreAbortion : Pro Life And Pro Choice971 Words   |  4 PagesAm I a tiny human or just a fetus? According to Webster Dictionary, abortion is â€Å"the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus†. There are two sides when it comes to abortion: pro-life and pro-choice. Pro-life supporters are usually religious individuals, individuals who believe it is a kind of murder, and/or people who believe in the sanctity of life. Pro-choice supporters are normally individuals who believe a womanRead MoreA Consistent Ethic Of Life930 Words   |  4 Pagesinstance, a three months pregnant woman is admitted to the hospital due to a hemorrhage condition. She didn’t know that she was three months pregnant because the baby is growing inside the fallopian tube instead in the uterus. A type of pregnancy calls the â€Å"ectopic pregnancy†. Shortly after her admission to the hospital, a doctor finds out the underlying cause of the hemorrhage is a ruptured of the fallopian tube. The condition is so severe that she is bleeding profusely. The doctor tells her the onlyRead MoreAbortion And Birth Control : Pro Choice And Pro Life Essay1281 Words   |  6 Pagesapproximately 10% of women who have abortions suffer from complications. A 1997 Finnish study found that women who had abortions were 60% more likely to die from natural causes, such as â€Å"hemorrhage[ing], sepsis, embolism, anesthesia, and undiagnosed ectopic pregnancies†7, and seven times more likely to commit suicide. Researchers in Denmark replicated this study in 2012 and discovered similar results.7 Pro-Life activists often use this idea of protecting a woman’s health to enhance their cause. They argueRead MoreShould Ultrasound Be Mandatory Before An Abortion2053 Words   |  9 Pagesat God. It is the doctor’s responsibility to share all information with the patient to ensure they are fully informed of the impending decision and if they don’t, I feel they are violating this oath, both to the medical field and to themselves. According to Aziza Ahmed, Crisis Pregnancy Centers are often found giving false and misleading information about abortions. With the help of legislators, we could put a stop to uninformed abortions. We could help make a law that states women would be requiredRead More The Battle Between Legality and Morality: An Abortion Dilemma 2397 Words   |  10 PagesLiberty, and the pursuit of Happiness stated in the Declaration of Independence. Abortion also takes a physical and emotional toll on both the fetus and mother and therefore the sanctity of life must be protected. Although pro-life advocates argue the moral side of abortion— the killing of the innocent is immoral, pro-choice advocates argue the legal standpoint—the illegalization of abortion is a breach of privacy and therefore is unconstitutional. In each debate one must recognize there are never twoRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal Or Illegal? Essay1885 Words   |  8 Pagesshould abortion be legal or illegal. Abortion is one of the most common medical procedures performed worldwide also known as elective termination of pregnancy (History,2016). Abortion is the destruction of the fetus or unborn child while the child is still in the mother’s womb. This procedure can be done almost anyone from the mother herself to back alley, most common, abortion clinics. More than 40% of all women will end a pregnancy by abortion and remains common in the US. But the questions is shouldRead MoreThesis: Should Abortions Be Legal?6429 Words   |  26 PagesShould Abortions be Legal? Regina Corroa PH103 Informal Logic Barri Mallin June 20, 2010 Should Abortions be Legal? Thesis Abortion is defined as intentional termination of a pregnancy after conception (O’Brien). Abortion is a very touchy subject that has been around for thousands of years. When emotions are used for reasoning this is called a fallacy. With this particular issue the fallacy â€Å"slippery slope† is very common in the persuasion of arguments (Moore, p 182). Slippery slope is when oneRead MoreAbortion - Is It Moral or Immoral2853 Words   |  12 PagesAbortion – Moral or Immoral? I would argue that abortion is immoral. Abortion is a debate that continues day in, day out, year in, year out. We have laws that have been set into place, yet the debate continues. The opposing sides in the debate each strongly believe they are right. The pro-choice supporters see a womans right to choose as central to the debate. The pro-choice advocates see the life of the baby as the most important concern. Very little middle ground exists on the issue

Saturday, December 28, 2019

How the Persian Wars Started

During the Archaic Age, one group of Greeks pushed another from the mainland, resulting in a sizeable Hellenic population in Ionia (now Asia Minor). Eventually, these uprooted Greeks came under the rule of the Lydians of Asia Minor. In 546, Persian monarchs replaced the Lydians. The Ionian Greeks found Persian rule oppressive and attempted to revolt—with the aid of the mainland Greeks. The Persian Wars lasted from 492-449 B.C. Ionian Greeks The Athenians considered themselves Ionian; however, the term is now used a bit differently. What we consider Ionians were the Greeks the Dorians (or descendants of Hercules) pushed off mainland Greece. Ionian Greeks, who were in contact with the civilizations to their East, including Mesopotamia and ancient Iran, made many important contributions to Greek culture—especially philosophy. Croesus of Lydia King Croesus of Lydia, a man of fabled wealth, was said to have acquired his wealth from the man with the Golden Touch—Midas, son of the man who had created the Gordian Knot. Croesus is said to have been the first foreigner to come into contact with the Greek settlers of Ionia, in Asia Minor. Misinterpreting an oracle, he lost his kingdom to Persia. The Greeks chafed under Persian rule and reacted. The Persian Empire King Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered the Lydians and put King Croesus to death.* By acquiring Lydia, Cyrus was now king of the Ionian Greeks. The Greeks objected to the strains the Persians put on them, including the draft, heavy tribute, and interference in local government. A Greek tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, first tried to ingratiate himself with the Persians and then led a revolt against them. The Persian War The Ionian Greeks sought and received military help from mainland Greece, but once the more distant Greeks came to the attention of the African and Asian empire-building Persians, the Persians sought to annex them, too. With many more men and a despotic government going for the Persian side, it looked like a one-sided fight. King Darius of Persia Darius ruled the Persian Empire from 521-486. Going east, he conquered part of the Indian Subcontinent and attacked tribes of the Steppe, like the Scythians, but never conquered them. Nor was Darius able to conquer the Greeks. Instead, he suffered a defeat in the Battle of Marathon. This was very important for the Greeks, although fairly minor for Darius. Xerxes, the King of Persia A son of Darius, Xerxes, was more aggressive in his empire building. To avenge his fathers defeat at Marathon, he led an army of about 150,000 men and a 600-ship navy into Greece, defeating the Greeks at Thermopylae. Xerxes destroyed much of Athens, from which most of the people had fled, gathering together with other Greeks at Salamis to face their enemy. Then Xerxes suffered defeat in the battle off the island of Salamis. He left Greece, but his general Mardonius remained, only to be defeated at Plataea. Herodotus Herodotus History, a celebration of the Greek victory over the Persians, was written in the mid-fifth century B.C. Herodotus wanted to present as much information about the Persian War as he could. What sometimes reads like a travelogue, includes information on the entire Persian Empire, and simultaneously explains the origins of the conflict with references to mythological prehistory. The Delian League After an Athenian-led Greek victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis, in 478, Athens was put in charge of a protection alliance with the Ionian cities. The treasury was at Delos; hence the name for the alliance. Soon the leadership of Athens became oppressive, although, in one form or another, the Delian League survived until the victory of Philip of Macedonia over the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea. *For conflicting accounts of the death of Croesus, see: What Happened to Croesus? by J. A. S. Evans. The Classical Journal, Vol. 74, No. 1. (Oct. - Nov. 1978), pp. 34-40. Sources A History of the Ancient World, by Chester StarrThe Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, by Donald KaganPlutarchs Life of Pericles, by H. Hold